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# Rules and Patterns

## Introduction to Rules and Patterns

This section discusses user defined pattern matching and simplification rules (set up by TELLSIMP, TELLSIMPAFTER, DEFMATCH, or, DEFRULE.) You may affect the main simplification procedures, or else have your rules applied explicityly using APPLY1 and APPLY2. There are additional mechanisms for polynomials rules under TELLRAT, and for commutative and non commutative algebra in chapter on AFFINE.

## Definitions for Rules and Patterns

Function: APPLY1 (exp, rule1, ..., rulen)
repeatedly applies the first rule to exp until it fails, then repeatedly applies the same rule to all subexpressions of exp, left-to-right, until the first rule has failed on all subexpressions. Call the result of transforming exp in this manner exp'. Then the second rule is applied in the same fashion starting at the top of exp'. When the final rule fails on the final subexpression, the application is finished.

Function: APPLY2 (exp, rule1, ..., rulen)
differs from APPLY1 in that if the first rule fails on a given subexpression, then the second rule is repeatedly applied, etc. Only if they all fail on a given subexpression is the whole set of rules repeatedly applied to the next subexpression. If one of the rules succeeds, then the same subexpression is reprocessed, starting with the first rule. MAXAPPLYDEPTH is the maximum depth to which APPLY1 and APPLY2 will delve.

Function: APPLYB1 (exp, rule1, ..., rulen)
is similar to APPLY1 but works from the "bottom up" instead of from the "top down". That is, it processes the smallest subexpression of exp, then the next smallest, etc. MAXAPPLYHEIGHT - is the maximum height to which APPLYB1 will reach before giving up.

Variable: CURRENT_LET_RULE_PACKAGE
default:[DEFAULT_LET_RULE_PACKAGE] - the name of the rule package that is presently being used. The user may reset this variable to the name of any rule package previously defined via the LET command. Whenever any of the functions comprising the let package are called with no package name the value of
```CURRENT_LET_RULE_PACKAGE
```

is used. If a call such as LETSIMP(expr,rule_pkg_name); is made, the rule package rule_pkg_name is used for that LETSIMP command only, i.e. the value of CURRENT_LET_RULE_PACKAGE is not changed.

Variable: DEFAULT_LET_RULE_PACKAGE
- the name of the rule package used when one is not explicitly set by the user with LET or by changing the value of CURRENT_LET_RULE_PACKAGE.

Function: DEFMATCH (progname, pattern, parm1, ..., parmn)
creates a function of n+1 arguments with the name progname which tests an expression to see if it can match a particular pattern. The pattern is some expression containing pattern variables and parameters. The parms are given explicitly as arguments to DEFMATCH while the pattern variables (if supplied) were given implicitly in a previous MATCHDECLARE function. The first argument to the created function progname, is an expression to be matched against the "pattern" and the other n arguments are the actual variables occurring in the expression which are to take the place of dummy variables occurring in the "pattern". Thus the parms in the DEFMATCH are like the dummy arguments to the SUBROUTINE statement in FORTRAN. When the function is "called" the actual arguments are substituted. For example:
```(C1)  NONZEROANDFREEOF(X,E):=  IF E#0 AND FREEOF(X,E)
THEN TRUE ELSE FALSE\$
(IS(E#0 AND FREEOF(X,E)) is an  equivalent function
definition)
(C2)  MATCHDECLARE(A,NONZEROANDFREEOF(X),B,FREEOF(X))\$
(C3)  DEFMATCH(LINEAR,A*X+B,X)\$
This has caused the function LINEAR(exp,var1) to be defined.  It

```

tests exp to see if it is of the form A*var1+B where A and B do not contain var1 and A is not zero. DEFMATCHed functions return (if the match is successful) a list of equations whose left sides are the pattern variables and parms and whose right sides are the expressions which the pattern variables and parameters matched. The pattern variables, but not the parameters, are set to the matched expressions. If the match fails, the function returns FALSE. Thus LINEAR(3*Z+(Y+1)*Z+Y**2,Z) would return [B=Y**2, A=Y+4, X=Z]. Any variables not declared as pattern variables in MATCHDECLARE or as parameters in DEFMATCH which occur in pattern will match only themselves so that if the third argument to the DEFMATCH in (C4) had been omitted, then LINEAR would only match expressions linear in X, not in any other variable. A pattern which contains no parameters or pattern variables returns TRUE if the match succeeds. Do EXAMPLE(DEFMATCH); for more examples.

Function: DEFRULE (rulename, pattern, replacement)
defines and names a replacement rule for the given pattern. If the rule named rulename is applied to an expression (by one of the APPLY functions below), every subexpression matching the pattern will be replaced by the replacement. All variables in the replacement which have been assigned values by the pattern match are assigned those values in the replacement which is then simplified. The rules themselves can be treated as functions which will transform an expression by one operation of the pattern match and replacement. If the pattern fails, the original expression is returned.

Function: DISPRULE (rulename1, rulename2, ...)
will display rules with the names rulename1, rulename2, as were given by DEFRULE, TELLSIMP, or TELLSIMPAFTER or a pattern defined by DEFMATCH. For example, the first rule modifying SIN will be called SINRULE1. DISPRULE(ALL); will display all rules.

Function: LET (prod, repl, predname, arg1, arg2, ..., argn)
defines a substitution rule for LETSIMP such that prod gets replaced by repl. prod is a product of positive or negative powers of the following types of terms:
• (1) Atoms which LETSIMP will search for literally unless previous to calling LETSIMP the MATCHDECLARE function is used to associate a predicate with the atom. In this case LETSIMP will match the atom to any term of a product satisfying the predicate.
• (2) Kernels such as SIN(X), N!, F(X,Y), etc. As with atoms above LETSIMP will look for a literal match unless MATCHDECLARE is used to associate a predicate with the argument of the kernel. A term to a positive power will only match a term having at least that power in the expression being LETSIMPed. A term to a negative power on the other hand will only match a term with a power at least as negative. In the case of negative powers in "product" the switch LETRAT must be set to TRUE (see below). If a predicate is included in the LET function followed by a list of arguments, a tentative match (i.e. one that would be accepted if the predicate were omitted) will be accepted only if predname(arg1',...,argn') evaluates to TRUE where argi' is the value matched to argi. The argi may be the name of any atom or the argument of any kernel appearing in prod. repl may be any rational expression. If any of the atoms or arguments from prod appear in repl the appropriate substitutions will be made.

LETRAT[FALSE] when FALSE, LETSIMP will simplify the numerator and denominator of expr independently and return the result. Substitutions such as N!/N goes to (N-1)! will fail. To handle such situations LETRAT should be set to TRUE, then the numerator, denominator, and their quotient will be simplified in that order. These substitution functions allow you to work with several rulepackages at once. Each rulepackage can contain any number of LETed rules and is referred to by a user supplied name. To insert a rule into the rulepackage name, do LET([prod,repl,pred,arg1,...],name). To apply the rules in rulepackage name, do LETSIMP(expr, name). The function LETSIMP(expr,name1,name2,...) is equivalent to doing LETSIMP(expr,name1) followed by LETSIMP(%,name2) etc. CURRENT_LET_RULE_PACKAGE is the name of the rule package that is presently being used. The user may reset this variable to the name of any rule package previously defined via the LET command. Whenever any of the functions comprising the let package are called with no package name the value of CURRENT_LET_RULE_PACKAGE is used. If a call such as LETSIMP(expr,rule_pkg_name); is made, the rule package rule_pkg_name is used for that LETSIMP command only, i.e. the value of CURRENT_LET_RULE_PACKAGE is not changed. There is a DEFAULT_LET_RULE_PACKAGE which is assumed when no other name is supplied to any of the functions. Whenever a LET includes a rulepackage name that is used as the CURRENT_LET_RULE_PACKAGE.

Variable: LETRAT
default: [FALSE] - when FALSE, LETSIMP will simplify the numerator and denominator of expr independently and return the result. Substitutions such as N!/N goes to (N-1)! will fail. To handle such situations LETRAT should be set to TRUE, then the numerator, denominator, and their quotient will be simplified in that order.

Function: LETRULES ()
displays the rules in the current rulepackage. LETRULES(name) displays the rules in the named rulepackage. The current rulepackage is the value of
```CURRENT_LET_RULE_PACKAGE
```

The initial value of the rules is

```DEFAULT_LET_RULE_PACKAGE
```

Function: LETSIMP (exp)
will continually apply the substitution rules previously defined by the function LET until no further change is made to exp. LETSIMP(expr,rule_pkg_name); will cause the rule package rule_pkg_name to be used for that LETSIMP command only, i.e. the value of CURRENT_LET_RULE_PACKAGE is not changed.

Variable: LET_RULE_PACKAGES
default:[DEFAULT_LET_RULE_PACKAGE] - The value of LET_RULE_PACKAGES is a list of all the user-defined let rule packages plus the special package
```DEFAULT_LET_RULE_PACKAGE
```

This is the name of the rule package used when one is not explicitly set by the user.

Function: MATCHDECLARE (patternvar, predicate, ...)
associates a predicate with a pattern variable so that the variable will only match expressions for which the predicate is not FALSE. (The matching is accomplished by one of the functions described below). For example after
```MATCHDECLARE(Q,FREEOF(X,%E))
```

is executed, Q will match any expression not containing X or %E. If the match succeeds then the variable is set to the matched expression. The predicate (in this case FREEOF) is written without the last argument which should be the one against which the pattern variable is to be tested. Note that the patternvar and the arguments to the predicate are evaluated at the time the match is performed. The odd numbered argument may also be a list of pattern variables all of which are to have the associated predicate. Any even number of arguments may be given. For pattern matching, predicates refer to functions which are either FALSE or not FALSE (any non FALSE value acts like TRUE). MATCHDECLARE(var,TRUE) will permit var to match any expression.

Function: MATCHFIX
- MATCHFIX operators are used to denote functions of any number of arguments which are passed to the function as a list. The arguments occur between the main operator and its "matching" delimiter. The MATCHFIX("x",...) function is a syntax extension function which declares x to be a MATCHFIX operator. The default binding power is 180, and the ARGS inside may be anything.

```
(C1) matchfix("|","|");

(D1) 				      "|"
(C2) |a|+b;

(D2) 				   b + (|a|)
(C3) |(a,b)|;

(D3) 				      |b|
(C4) |[a,b]|;

(D4) 				   |[a, b]|

(C9) |x|:=IF NUMBERP(x) THEN ABS(x)
ELSE (IF LISTP(x) AND APPLY("and",MAP(NUMBERP,x))
THEN SUM(x[i]^2,i,1,LENGTH(x))^0.5 ELSE BUILDQ([u:x],|u|))\$

(C10) |[1,2,3]|;

(D10) 			       3.741657386773941

(C18) |-7|;

(D18) 				       7
(C19) |[a,b]|;

(D19) 				   |[a, b]|

```

Function: REMLET (prod, name)
deletes the substitution rule, prod --> repl, most recently defined by the LET function. If name is supplied the rule is deleted from the rule package name. REMLET() and REMLET(ALL) delete all substitution rules from the current rulepackage. If the name of a rulepackage is supplied, e.g. REMLET(ALL,name), the rulepackage, name, is also deleted. If a substitution is to be changed using the same product, REMLET need not be called, just redefine the substitution using the same product (literally) with the LET function and the new replacement and/or predicate name. Should REMLET(product) now be called the original substitution rule will be revived.

Function: REMRULE (function, rulename)
will remove a rule with the name rulename from the function which was placed there by DEFRULE, DEFMATCH, TELLSIMP, or TELLSIMPAFTER. If rule-name is ALL, then all rules will be removed.

Function: TELLSIMP (pattern, replacement)
is similar to TELLSIMPAFTER but places new information before old so that it is applied before the built-in simplification rules. TELLSIMP is used when it is important to modify the expression before the simplifier works on it, for instance if the simplifier "knows" something about the expression, but what it returns is not to your liking. If the simplifier "knows" something about the main operator of the expression, but is simply not doing enough for you, you probably want to use TELLSIMPAFTER. The pattern may not be a sum, product, single variable, or number. RULES is a list of names having simplification rules added to them by DEFRULE, DEFMATCH, TELLSIMP, or TELLSIMPAFTER. Do EXAMPLE(TELLSIMP); for examples.

Function: TELLSIMPAFTER (pattern, replacement)
defines a replacement for pattern which the MACSYMA simplifier uses after it applies the built-in simplification rules. The pattern may be anything but a single variable or a number.

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